Tag: Cisco

    How to Install Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2.2 in openSUSE Linux OS

    OpenSUSE Leap 15.1 was released last May 2019. Ready to use and enjoy your computer, this is a stable version of the GNU / Linux distribution.

    Today, openSUSE developers are pleased to announce that they are updating the new version of their operating system to the new openSUSE 15 version, which includes updated components and technologies based on the next SUSE Enterprise Linux 15 series and designed for advanced users.

    With the latest release of SUSE Linux Enterprise 15, support is provided for local cloud applications that enable companies to move to the next level.

    At this year’s Open Source Summit in Shanghai, China, SUSE made a big statement about the release of SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 Service Pack 1. He said his products would support both traditional and workloads. As a result, companies using this operating system can benefit both today and in the long run.

    After you give some information about openSUSE, let’s move on to installing Packet Tracer, great software for preparing for Cisco exams on this system.

    How to Use Packet Tracer on SUSE Linux

    The latest version of Packet Tracer, developed by Networking Academy, customized and released for free, is 7.2.2.

    To install Packet Tracer on your Linux computer, follow these instructions:

    Step 1: First, download the Packet Tracer for Linux systems by clicking here.

    Step 2: Start the installation by double-clicking on the downloaded setup file.

    Step 3: In the first step of the Packet Tracer installation wizard, click Next.

    Step 4: Configure the installation folder to / opt / pt / and click Next.

    Step 5: After configuring the installation location, accept the simulator’s license agreement and click Next.

    Step 6: In the Ready to Install phase, click the Install button to start the installation.

    Step 7: Enter your root password during installation and click OK to continue the installation.

    Step 8: After installation, click Finish and execute the packettracer command on the terminal to run the program.

    Step 9: If the Cisco simulator software is not running on your openSUSE operating system, download the libpng package using the command below.

    wget http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/libp/libpng/libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 10: Since deb packages are not installed on SUSE OS, download and install the DPKG package with the command below.

    sudo zypper install dpkg

    Step 11: Now you can run your Packet Tracer software by copying libpng12.so.0 to /opt/pt/bin/ after executing the following commands!

    mkdir cpt; dpkg -x libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb ./cpt
    sudo cp ./cpt/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpng12.so.0 /opt/pt/bin/

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    How to Install Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2.2 in Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) OS

    Ubuntu is a community-developed system for laptops, desktops, and servers. Whether at home, at school, or at work, Ubuntu includes everything you might need, from word processors and email applications to web server software and programming tools.

    Ubuntu will always be free. You do not pay for a usage license. You can download, use, and share Ubuntu with your friends, family, school, or business for free.

    Every six months, a new version of the desktop and server version is released. This means you will always have the latest applications that the open-source world can offer you.

    Ubuntu was designed with security in mind. In desktop and server versions, you will receive security updates freely for at least 18 months. With the Long Term Support (LTS) version, you have three years of support on the desktop version and five years on the server version. There is no extra payment for the LTS version, we do our best for everyone on the same free terms. Updates to the new version of Ubuntu are free and will always be free.

    PT (Packet Tracer) is simple to use but also complex networking software. Using this software, you can create various network topologies and simulate your project with visual presentations.

    It provides students with networking and troubleshooting experiences with virtually unlimited number of devices without having to buy real routers or switches.

    After talking a bit about Ubuntu and Packet Tracer, let’s get to the point.

    How to Use Packet Tracer on an Ubuntu PC

    The latest version of Ubuntu is 19.10 (Eoan Ermine). The PT version is also 7.2.2

    Before installing on your Linux computer, download the PT to your computer and then follow the steps below for step-by-step installation.

    Step 1: Right-click on your Ubuntu desktop and open the terminal.

    Step 2: Use the following command to change the permissions for the .run file you downloaded to your computer:

    chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run

    Step 3: Use the following command to start the GUI wizard of Packet Tracer:


    Step 4: Accept the license agreement of the Cisco simulator and click Next to complete the installation. Then, the PT will try to open, but it won’t work because you need to install several dependent packages.

    Step 5: To run Packet Tracer, you must first install the Libpng package. Use the following commands to install libpng:

    wget http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/libp/libpng/libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb
    sudo dpkg -i libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 6: When installing Libpng, you will also need to install this package if you receive a multiarch not installed error. Therefore, to install multiarch, use the following commands:

    wget http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/main/g/glibc/multiarch-support_2.29-0ubuntu2_amd64.deb
    sudo dpkg -i multiarch-support_2.29-0ubuntu2_amd64.deb

    Step 7: After installing the Multiarch package, try to install libpng again.

    Step 8: After installing libpng, open the program by running the packettracer command on the terminal.

    Step 9: Damn! Packet Tracer does not work again!

    Step 10: The reason why Packet Tracer doesn’t work is libpng12.so.0. You need to extract the libpng.deb file to the folder and copy the libpng12.so.0 file to /opt/pt/bin/. To do this, use the following commands:

    mkdir cpt; dpkg -x libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb ./cpt
    cp ./cpt/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpng12.so.0 /opt/pt/bin/

    Step 11: After fixing Ubuntu libpng12.so.0 error, you can now use Packet Tracer on your computer without a problem!

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    How to Install Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2.2 in Debian 10 Buster OS

    Debian is an organization created by volunteers dedicated to developing free software and developing the ideals of the free software community. The Debian Project began in 1993 when Ian Murdock invited all software developers to contribute to a completely consistent distribution based on the relatively new Linux kernel at the time.

    Initially supported by the Free Software Foundation and influenced by the GNU philosophy, the relatively small group of passions grew over the years to become an organization of around 1062 Debian developers.

    Packet Tracer is an interactive network simulation and learning tool for instructors and students. This tool allows users to create network topologies, configure devices, deploy packages, and simulate a network with multiple visual presentations. Packet Tracer focuses on better supporting network protocols taught in the CCNA curriculum.

    Today we going to show you how to run the Packet Tracer on Debian 10 Buster.

    Debian 10 Buster was released as a stable version after 25 months and will be supported by Security and Long Term Support for 5 years.

    If you want to prepare for Cisco exams with your Linux system, you can use Packet Tracer.

    Step 1: Download Packet Tracer for Linux to your desktop and then turn on your terminal.

    Step 2: Set the file permissions on your terminal with chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run.

    chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run

    Step 3: Run ./PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run to start the installation.


    Step 4: Install the Cisco Packet Tracer step by step on your system and use the packettracer command on the terminal to run it.

    Step 5: If you installed the program but it does not work, download the libpng package with the command below.

    wget http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/libp/libpng/libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 6: To install libpng12 in Debian, use the command dpkg -i libpng12-0_1.2.50-2 + ​​deb8u3_amd64.deb.

    dpkg -i libpng12-0_1.2.50-2 + ​​deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 7: You may need to install the multiarch-support package when installing Linpng. If you see a warning like this, run the following command to install multiarch:

    sudo apt-get install multiarch-support

    Step 8: After installing Multiarch, install libpng12. If you get an error like the one below, copy libpng12.so.0 to /opt/pt/bin/ folder.

    unable to install new version of '/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpng12.so.0': No such file or directory

    Step 9: To copy libpng12.so.0 using the terminal, use the following commands:

    mkdir cpt; dpkg -x libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb ./cpt
    cp ./cpt/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpng12.so.0 /opt/pt/bin/

    Step 10: After fixing libpng12.so.0 error, you can now run and use your Packet Tracer on your Debian PC!

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    How to Install Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2.2 on Linux Mint 19.2 OS

    The latest version of Cisco’s popular network simulator is now available for download.

    Unlike the previous version, Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2 comes with major improvements, including a reconfigured user interface theme.

    To download the new version of Packet Tracer, we’ll need to create a user account at Cisco Networking Academy (free). This will allow us to access to download software as well as automatically register for an online course on cybersecurity.

    As you know, Linux Mint is derived from Ubuntu, which has become very popular in recent years and leaves behind its basic distribution.

    After the release of the new version of Linux Mint 19.2, we will share a simple installation guide of Packet Tracer, so that it can be useful for those who prefer to try this operating system on their computers or a virtual machine.

    Linux Mint 19.2 will be supported by 2023 and comes with up-to-date software and offers improvements and new features to make your desktop experience more comfortable.

    How to Setup and Run Packet Tracer on Linux Mint

    Step 1: After installing the Mint OS, you can install Packet Tracer and create complex network projects to prepare for Cisco Routing or Switching exams.

    Step 2: Download the Cisco simulator program from Netacad to your computer.

    Step 3: Cisco previously published the setup file as tar.gz for Linux. The file extension is now published as .run. Copy the PacketTracer.run file you downloaded to the desktop, and then open Terminal.

    Step 4: Use the “chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run” command to change the permissions of the Run file.

    chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run

    Step 5: Now use the command “./PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run” to start the installation.

    Step 6: Complete the installation with the GUI setup interface.

    Step 7: Run the packettracer command to run the software after installation. If the software doesn’t work or doesn’t respond, you need to install the libpng package.

    Step 8: Run the following commands to download and install libpng for Mint.

    wget http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/libp/libpng/libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb
    dpkg -i libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+​​deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 9: When you run the “packettracer” command on the terminal again, you will be able to run the simulator software.

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    How to Install Cisco Packet Tracer 7.2.2 in Kali Linux 2020.1 OS

    Cisco Packet Tracer is a software developed by Cisco Networking Academy department. This software allows you to design multiple scenarios in the field of networks because it allows you to develop different types of networks with wired and wireless media; Allows you to use dynamic routing protocols.

    It also allows for the development of convergent networks by implementing equipment with multiple services that act as servers, all transmitted and retransmitted packets can be visualized by a traffic analyzer that includes the program, allowing you to see how negotiation is set up Different transmission and routing protocols make their understanding easier.

    Packet Tracker is available for different systems such as Windows (32 and 64 bit), Linux (64 bit only), Android and iOS. You must be logged in to access your content.

    Installing on both Android, iOS, and Windows requires no additional steps than downloading your installer from executable Windows from the relevant application market (Google Play Store, App Store) or Web page.

    This article is intended to assist employees and trainees to install and run Packet Tracer software under a Kali Linux Kali system (based on Debian).

    Step 1: First, visit the Netacad website, create a new account and download Packet Tracer for Linux.

    Step 2: After downloading the installation file, copy the file to the Kali desktop and open Terminal in that location.

    Step 3: Test your Internet connection, and then use the command below to change the permission of the Packet Tracer.run file.

    chmod +x PacketTracer-7.2.2-ubuntu-setup.run

    Step 4: Use the command below on the terminal to start the Packet Tracer installation.


    Step 5: Finish the installation using the GUI setup wizard. And then run “packettracer” in the terminal and open the application.

    Step 6: You will see the Starting Cisco Packet Tracer message, but the program will not run! Because on Kali you need to install some additional packages for this software. Add the following address to the Sources list and run the apt update command.

    nano /etc/apt/sources.list
    deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
    apt update
    wget http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/pool/main/libp/libpng/libpng12-0_1.2.50-2+deb8u3_amd64.deb

    Step 7: If the libpng installation fails, you will also need to install the multiarch package. Use the following command to install the Multiarch package.

    apt install multiarch-support

    Step 8: When you try to reinstall libpng, you will see that the process was successful this time!

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    What is CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician)?

    What is Cisco CCENT?

    The Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician (CCENT) Certificate supports the ability to set up, run, and resolve a small enterprise network, including a basic security network. Professionals with this certificate have the skills necessary for basic network support positions.

    This certificate includes:

    1. Basic elements of the network
    2. WAN technologies
    3. Basic security
    4. Wireless concepts
    5. Routing Basics
    6. Simple Network Configuration

    The CCENT Certificate is the first step at Cisco to obtain the CCNA Certificate covering the networks of more complex companies.

    It is intended for students at Cisco Networking Academy in the ICT industry looking for entry-level jobs or waiting to meet their base requirements to acquire more specialized ICT skills.

    The preparation of this certification consists of two courses:

    Introduction to networks

    • Network scanning
    • Setting up a network operating system
    • Network protocols and communication
    • Network access
    • Ethernet
    • Network layer
    • Transport layer
    • IP Address Assignment
    • IP network section on subnets
    • Application layer
    • This is a network

    Basic Routing Policies

    • Introduction to switched networks
    • Configuration and basic switching concepts
    • VLAN
    • Routing Concepts
    • VLAN communication
    • Static routing
    • Dynamic routing
    • OSPF single area
    • Access Control Lists
    • DHCP
    • Network address translation for IPv4

    The exam corresponding to this certificate is 100-001 Interconnection Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1). Evaluate the ability to set up, run and solve events in a small network.

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    What is CCNA (Cisco Certified Networking Associate)?

    For basic network engineers, CCNA stands for Cisco Certified Network Associate, a certification program that helps you increase your investment in basic network knowledge and increases the value of your employer network.

    CCNA Certification verifies the establishment, configuration, operation, and troubleshooting of medium-sized routers and switching networks, including the implementation and verification of connections to remote sites in a WAN.

    To obtain a CCNA header and certification change, you will need to obtain an approval score on the Cisco # 200-120 exam or by combining both Cisco Network Device Interconnection approval.

    Pass the ICND1, which validates the knowledge and skills required to set up and issue a CCENT certificate, which means the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician. Confirmation scores are determined by statistical analysis and may vary.

    At the end of the exam, the candidates receive a final report as well as the loss of responsibilities for the exam section and the passing score of the exam. CCNA does not publish an exam on approval points due to exam questions, and approval points are subject to change without notice.

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    What is Cisco CCNA Certification and What are its Advantages?

    We make it clear that Cisco is a leading communications company in the world of data and IT networks, a very important company that manufactures network components such as routers, hardware firewalls, IP telephony products.

    Cisco Systems offers a range of training programs that ensure the training and certification of professional in the IT and computer networks field.

    Cisco Certifications are internationally recognized and have become a standard for communications, providing great reliability and a high reputation.

    The certificates are shown in the following list range from lesser to more complex, starting with CCENT:

    CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician):

    This is your first step towards CCNA certification and will help you stand out from the crowd in entry-level positions. Having CCENT means you have what it takes to manage a small business branch network.

    CCNA (Cisco Certified Networking Associate):

    One of the most important certificates in the IT industry. This certificate represents the relevant level for practical skills in diagnosing and resolving specific network problems.

    CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Specialist):

    Provides knowledge and practical experience to design and support complex business networks in the real business environment, these skills are equally important in today’s physical networks and virtualized network functions.

    CCIE (Cisco Certified Internet Specialist):

    Evaluates infrastructure network design skills at the level of experts worldwide. This certification is recognized worldwide as the most prestigious network certificate in the industry.

    Cisco Certified Architect:

    The highest-level certification within the Cisco certification program. Top of the pyramid for those who want to verify Cisco technology and infrastructure architecture.

    Now, this point has been clarified, let’s focus on the main topic and advantages of CCNA, but before I remember that CCNA Routing and Switching certification is valid for three years. After this time, you will need to re-certify for CCNA or higher levels.

    A professional with Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching certification has the knowledge to set up and configure the network infrastructure that connects all devices within a company.

    Some of its advantages:

    • It is one of the most recognized certificates in the IT sector.
    • It is an important step to building a career in IT, so you can prepare for a successful career in networking.
    • You can earn much more money than you currently receive.
    • Practical information about routing, switching, network applications, protocols, and services.
    • This certification helps you achieve a better job, becoming a certified professional becomes a more attractive candidate for the position you want to do within the company.
    • Prestige offers both you and your company a high level of information guarantee.

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    What is IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)?

    IGRP Protocol

    IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is an advanced distance-vector protocol developed by Cisco Systems in the mid-1980s, including some of the RIP errors.

    Different bandwidths can be used to configure the metric value, such as the user’s network latency, bandwidth, and latency depending on the relative speed and capacity of the interface.

    The load and reliability features are calculated based on the performance of the interface in actual network traffic management, although they are not enabled by default for routing decisions.

    Like RIP, it uses IP broadcasts to forward routing information to neighboring routers. However, IGRP has been designated as its transport layer protocol.

    To transmit network route information, UDP see is not connected to TCP. Since IGRP does not have a feedback mechanism, it works in a similar way to UDP.

    It offers three major improvements over the RIP protocol. First, the IGRP metric can support a network with a maximum of 255 router hop counts. Second, the IGRP metric can differentiate between the costs associated with sees of different types of connection media. Third, it should not wait for regularly scheduled times for updates, but rather by sending information about changes in the network when it becomes available.

    IGRP is a routing protocol based on distance vectors developed by CISCO.

    Improved Scalability

    On larger networks, routing has a maximum number of 100 hops by default but can be configured with 255 hops.

    Sophisticated Matrix

    A composite metric for greater flexibility in route selection. Interconnection delay and bandwidth are used and other parameters such as reliability, load and MTU can be included.

    Multiple Rotate support

    It can hold six different cost paths between source and destination networks. Various routes can be used to increase the available bandwidth or provide route redundancy. IGRP allows triggered updates.

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    Source: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/interior-gateway-routing-protocol-igrp/26825-5.html

    What is OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Protocol

    Open Shortest Path First Protocol

    OSPF is used inside the networks as RIP, the operation is very simple. Each router knows the nearby routers and the addresses each router has. In addition, each router (measured on routers) knows how far each router is. So when you need to send a packet, you send it the same way you have to do fewer skips.

    For example, a router with a local network with one workstation, and a router with three network connections (A) with a fast 48Mbps square relay network and a 64Kbps ISDN (B) line. Three packets from the local network to A and B to two packets go to W. The packet passes through B regardless of the saturation of the line or the bandwidth of the line.

    OSPF Types

    Undoubtedly, OSPF is a complex protocol and requires a lot of work to understand how it works, and makes many practices to master. One of the most important concepts in OSPF is the design and operation of different areas, which is quite confusing when this protocol is known.

    To explain how each works, it is necessary to know the types of LSA (Link State Ads) that the OSPF uses to communicate between neighbors and transmit routing information between them.

    Type 1 (LSA Router)

    Each router in area X sends a type 1 LSA to its neighbors. This LSA never leaves the domain to which it belongs and contains the Router ID of the sender and all connections that connect it.

    Type 2 (Network LSA)

    Sent by the DR (Private Router) within the network. Tells others the networks and masks it is connected to. This LSA never leaves the area it corresponds to. So, an ABR does not transmit to another region.

    Type 3 (Summary LSA)

    They are sent by an ABR to transfer information from one region to another. OSPF calls them a “summary”.

    Type 4 (ASBR-Summary LSA)

    Represents an ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router)

    Type 5 (External LSA)

    Represents an external route redistributed from another protocol within the OSPF (Ex: EIGRP). The ASBR takes the route from the external protocol and transmits them as type 5 to all internal areas except Stub type.

    Type 7

    OSPF rules say that redistribution is required only in a Spine zone (Area 0). In an NSSA domain, a router with a connection to another external routing protocol (eg RIP) can be connected and the ASBR sends these networks in type 7 format so that the ABR receives them and redistributes them as type 5.

    Type 1 and 2 LSAs are found in all areas and are not shipped anywhere they belong. Other LSAs are sent between fields, depending on the function they perform.

    Field Types

    • Standard
    • Backbone (Area 0)
    • Stub Area
    • Totally Stubby Area
    • Not-so-stubby Area (NSSA)
    • Totally Stubby NSSA


    This is the default field and allows links to be updated, summary paths, and external paths.

    Backbone (Area 0)

    OSPF is the main area of ​​topology. It must be present and all others must depend on it. The field is labeled 0 and has the same properties as a standard field.

    Stub Area

    Such a field does not accept information about external routes to the autonomous system (redistribution), such as paths from non-OSPF sources. If routers need to route to networks outside the autonomous OSPF system, they use a default route ( sent by ABR to other internal routers in the Stub area. ASBR is not allowed in this area (unless ABR is also an ASBR)

    Totally Stubby Area

    This area belongs to Cisco and does not accept routes from external autonomous systems (redistribution) or abstracts from other internal regions of the autonomous system. As with the Stub fields, ABRs send a default route for all external and SUMMARY routes (this is the difference with Stub). ASBR is not allowed in this area (unless ABR is also an ASBR)

    Not-so-stubby Area (NSSA)

    Almost the worst name in the world chose this name. There are type 7 LSAs in this field, which are similar to the Stub field because they do not accept information from external routes to the autonomous system (OSPF world) and replace them with a default route originating from ABR. However, the difference is that the NSSA accepts an ASBR directly connected to another routing protocol (eg, RIP, EIGRP, etc.). The NSSA ASBR transmits pathways within the site as LSA 7, and the corresponding ABR converts them to type 5 for normal treatment.

    Totally Stubby NSSA

    If the old is almost the worst name, make sure it is the worst. Fully Stubby Not Left-Handed Area or Fully Stubby NSSA is a proprietary Cisco area that functions in the same way as the Fully Stubby Area, does not allow external or summary routes, but permits an ASBR such as NSSA.

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    Source: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_ospf/configuration/xe-16/iro-xe-16-book/iro-cfg.html