Tag: RIP

    What is RIP Version 2 (Routing Information Protocol – RIPv2)?

    Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPv2) is one of the simplest and most widely used internal routing protocols. This is especially true from version 2, which offers some important improvements that make it a necessary resource for any network administrator.

    What kind of routing protocol is RIP?

    RIP is a standard vector distance protocol based on RFCs 1388, 1723 and 2453. The main limitation is enforced by the maximum number of hops it supports: 15. The RIP assumes that everything has more than 15 hops. There is an infinite distance, and therefore there is no valid way.

    In contrast, perhaps the most applied protocol. RIP is enabled by default on most devices (for example, some routers for small offices). In addition, firewalls that support RIP but not OSPF or EIGRP may be encountered.

    Some of its features:

    • The management distance for Ripv1 and RIPv2 is 120.
    • RIPv2 sends routing updates via the multicast address 224.0.0.9.
    • On Cisco routers, version 2 is not enabled by default. You must use the version 2 command in the RIP configuration mode.
    • RIPv2 automatically summarizes routing updates.
    • The number of hops of the metric value.

    How does RIP work?

    The device sends the complete routing table to all connected neighbors every 30 seconds. Events triggered by events can occur, for example, if an interface falls before the 30-second timer expires.

    As a distance-vector protocol, it is sensitive to the appearance of orientation loops. This is a result of not recalculating neighboring relationships or network topology, as in link-state protocols. This directly affects the quality of the routing information provided by the RIP.

    What are the advantages of RIPv2?

    Main developments:

    • VLSM support.
    • Multicast routing updates.
    • Routing updates with encrypted key authentication.

    How to configure RIPv2

    Unlike other routing protocols, RIP does not use autonomous systems or field numbers that identify a type of administrative unit. Therefore, the RIP configuration is very simple:

    Router(config)# rip router
    Router(config-router)# version 2
    Router(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

    This last parameter indicates that the protocol is present on any interface for that network address:

    • Sends routing updates.
    • You’ll be aware of getting redirect updates.
    • Any routing update it sends will contain the network address of any interface that is “on”.
    • If you do not want to send routing updates through an interface, the passive-interface command must be used.

    What are the commands that allow you to monitor RIP?

    • show ip route
    • show ip route rip
    • show ip protocols
    • show running-config
    • show running-config
    • debug ip rip

    RIPv2 is an improvement of the functions and extensions of RIPv1. Some of these advanced features include:

    • The next-hop addresses added to routing updates.
    • Using multicast addresses when sending updates.
    • Authentication option available.
    • Both RIPv1 and RIPv2 are distance vector routing protocols, but have the following functions and limitations:
    • Use wait timers and other timers to help prevent routing loops.
    • Use of split-horizon on the opposite horizon to help prevent orientation loops.
    • Use of updates triggered when there is a change in the topology to achieve faster convergence.
    • The maximum limit for a jump of 15, with a jump number of 16 representing an inaccessible network.
    • Supports VLSM.
    • Summarize the networks in the routing table.
    • Updates send the mask.
    • Loopback interface
    • It makes sense for those who don’t exist physically.
    • We simulate networks or hosts.
    • The main application is to be the identity of the router.

    RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Commands;

    Show ip protocols: Indicates whether RIP is sending and receiving version 2 updates and whether the automatic summary is valid.

    Int loopback 0: logical or virtual interfaces that interfere with router ID selection.

    Int loopback 0
    Ip address ip

    debug ip rip: Displays information about RIP routing updates when the router sends and receives them.

    no debug all: Disables all debugging that is enabled on the device.

    undebug all: Disables all debugging that is enabled on the device.

    Show version – Shows information about Cisco IOS and platform.

    debug cdp ip: Displays IP-specific CDP information.

    Using the UDP protocol and port 520, the RIP updates every 30 seconds and sends the entire routing table to its neighbors. RIPv2 makes updates triggered by events. Routes TTL (lifetime) is 180 seconds, which means that if the route does not appear active in 6 changes, it is deleted from the routing table.

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    What is Cisco RIP Protocol?

    RIP History

    The origin of the RIP was the Xerox GWINFO protocol.

    A later release was known as directed in 1982, Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) distributed with Unix.

    RIP has evolved as an Internet routing protocol, and other proprietary protocols use modified versions of RIP.

    For example, Apple Talk Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) and Banyan VINES Routing Table Protocol (RTP) are based on a version of the RIP routing protocol.

    The latest development in RIP is the RIPv2 feature, which allows more information to be included in RIP packets and provides a very simple authentication mechanism.

    This is what RIPv2 needs to learn for CCNA right now and is still the version you can see on some computers.

    What is Routing Information Protocol

    RIP is a dynamic routing protocol of the vector distance type, ie the best route for a given destination for RIP is the one with the least number of hopes.

    In Router and Routing – Dynamic Routing, you can understand the concept of distance vector in detail.

    One detail to keep in mind at all times is the skip limit.

    This limit 15 hopping, for the two versions of the protocol, was something that did not develop in the new version.

    If I need to pass more than 15 routers to reach my destination, my package will be thrown on the road.

    As you can imagine, this directly affects the scalability of the protocol.

    Although at that time a protocol that meets the needs of the moment; RIP today is well below the challenges of modern data networks.

    Now you can ask me why we saw it.

    The truth is, there are still many companies that use it, for little information or for a technical decision.

    As an example, in one of the networks I met, we used RIP as a redundant network protocol because it contained a high AD (Management Distance).

    For those wondering, the RIP has an AD value of 120.

    Messages

    RIP messages can be of two types:

    Request: sent by a recently started router, requesting information from neighboring routers.

    Reply: messages containing routing tables are updated. There are three types:

    Normal messages: Sent every 30 seconds. To indicate that the link and route are still active. The full routing table is sent.
    Messages sent in response to request messages.
    Messages sent when cost changes. All routing table is sent.

    Working mode

    When the RIP starts, it sends a message to each neighbor asking for a copy of the neighbor’s routing table.

    This message is a request with “address family” in 0 and “metric” in 16.

    Neighbor routers return a copy of the routing tables.

    When the RIP is in active mode, it sends all or part of the routing table to its neighbors every 30 seconds.

    The routing table is sent in response, even if the request is not present.

    When a measurement changes, it is broadcast to other routers.

    When the RIP receives a response, the message is confirmed and the local table is updated if necessary.

    You learned one route from another, you must save it until you find a more cost-effective route.

    This prevents routers from oscillating between two or more paths at equal cost.

    The routes that the RIP learns from other routers end unless they are broadcast again in 180 seconds, ie 6 seconds and 30 seconds.

    When a route expires, its metric is set to infinity, the invalidity of the route is distributed to the neighbors, and is deleted from the table after 60 seconds.

    The information is published in the first version and in the second version by multicast (224.0.0.9).

    Advantages and disadvantages

    The main advantage of RIP is the simplicity of its configuration, which makes it very easy to implement.

    Contrary to its simplicity, there are disadvantages.

    One of the most important of these is to be a distance-vector protocol that is very limited in modern networks.

    Today we can imagine this because we show great differences in connection speed.

    Another disadvantage is the very long convergence time.

    And let’s not forget the 15-jump limit.

    Can you imagine a protocol that limits you to 15 steps in a globalized world?

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    Download Packet Tracer
    What is RIPv2
    What is EIGRP

    Reference

    https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_rip/configuration/15-mt/irr-15-mt-book/irr-cfg-info-prot.html